Liver biopsy in dogs

Liver biopsy in dogs

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Liver biopsy in dogs: current issues and future directions {#jvim12507-sec-0003}


The ability of the liver to regenerate in the dog has been a useful diagnostic tool for years.[2](#jvim12507-bib-0002){ref-type="ref"}, [3](#jvim12507-bib-0003){ref-type="ref"}, [4](#jvim12507-bib-0004){ref-type="ref"} In a prospective study of dogs with hepatitis, liver biopsies showed a mean regeneration rate of 37% at 1 ,month after diagnosis and of 22% at 3 ,months.[5](#jvim12507-bib-0005){ref-type="ref"} Another study of dogs with acute or chronic hepatitis or nonhepatic disease identified regeneration rates ranging from 36% to 48%.[2](#jvim12507-bib-0002){ref-type="ref"} Regeneration is considered to be a good indicator of recovery in dogs, and although liver biopsies are not commonly performed in dogs, the results are used as a reference standard. For example, the diagnosis of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis or copper toxicosis is confirmed by liver biopsy that shows characteristic pathological changes.[6](#jvim12507-bib-0006){ref-type="ref"}, [7](#jvim12507-bib-0007){ref-type="ref"}

In addition to being used as a diagnostic tool for specific hepatopathies, liver biopsies are also performed to obtain liver tissue for immunohistochemical analysis of nonhepatic conditions or to assess the need for a liver transplant.[8](#jvim12507-bib-0008){ref-type="ref"}, [9](#jvim12507-bib-0009){ref-type="ref"}, [10](#jvim12507-bib-0010){ref-type="ref"}, [11](#jvim12507-bib-0011){ref-type="ref"}, [12](#jvim12507-bib-0012){ref-type="ref"}, [13](#jvim12507-bib-0013){ref-type="ref"}, [14](#jvim12507-bib-0014){ref-type="ref"} To obtain a representative sample, liver biopsy must be performed during a period of active hepatic regeneration, so as to avoid sampling of quiescent hepatocytes.[15](#jvim12507-bib-0015){ref-type="ref"} In this regard, the optimal timing of biopsy is determined by the type of biopsy procedure and liver function test results (Table ,[1](#jvim12507-tbl-0001){ref-type="table-wrap"}). The American College of Veterinary Surgeons[16](#jvim12507-bib-0016){ref-type="ref"} and European Association for Veterinary Clinical Pathology[17](#jvim12507-bib-0017){ref-type="ref"} recommend that dogs be biopsied after 6 ,months of age and between 2 and 8 ,weeks after normalization of hepatic function tests.


Timing of liver biopsies.


Hepatic Function Tests

-------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- ------------- ------- ------- ----- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- --- ---- ---

**6 ,month old (6 ,months and older)**

6 ,months 5--6 ,weeks 2 ,weeks 1 ,week 4 ,weeks

**4 ,month old (

Watch the video: Liver Biopsy Went Great! (May 2022).